➥ [Epub] ➟ How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us about Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence By Michael Pollan ➯ – Kairafanan.co

On the path to the Murti Bing.Pollan was born the same year I was, which makes us what I call mid Boomers As he says himself, we were too young to be part of Haight Ashbury, The Summer of Love and Woodstock.But I had two older siblings who were on the front end of the Boomer generation and experienced it all I paid close attention to what happened to their cohort My older brother was destroyed by drugs, including psychedelics, and died at age 39 There s a kind of evangelistic fervor in this book that I found rather slanted Instead of taking a realistic look at the 60 s, for example, he hammers Timothy Leary page after page Meanwhile, Ken Kesey gets nothan a couple of limp paragraphs Oddly, the author s hero is one Al Hubbard, a huckster who dresses in military fatigues and packs a sidearm Hubbard made me think of Walter Sobchak, the John Goodman character in the The Big Lebowski Hubbard is equally hostile to Leary To me, these rants against Leary prove nothing and are pretty weird But this seems to be the author s way of dismissing what actually happened back then, which can t be ignored Meanwhile, Hubbard ended up broke, living in a trailer park in the Arizona desert I feel I have read some version of this book several times before written by different people As people in my Boomer generation moved away from, or out and out rejected, traditional religious structures they began searching for alternatives that continued into the 70 s This New Age quest led to distorted versions of Eastern religion and even cults Techniques abounded Now that Boomers are older, and staring death in the face, it s not surprising that they re returning to these questions no matter how successful or wealthy they ve become The author is a self described scientific materialist, looking for , including a kind of safe passage to death under the influence of psychedelics In my experience, flexible intelligence, openness to change, willingness to take risks, and to forgive others, do not require mind bending drugs, but humility and an open heart A dark side of psychedelics that Pollan doesn t cover how the CIA used these drugs on unsuspecting victims who suffered severe brain damage, or even death, in the agency s quest to see if the drugs could be used for mind control or to extort confessions It didn t work, but the casualties were horrible.https www.nytimes.com 2019 09 10 bo What is the Murti Bing A cursory glance at the cover of Michael Pollan s new book examining the science of psychedelics manages to say a lot with very little There are no vivid colours arranged in mandalas, no kaleidoscopic landscape, no face with eyes replaced by swirls of sickening colour combinations Instead, a black, text laden page is only broken up by the not quite square dimensions of a window that looks out onto a blue sky In one sense, this encapsulates the book perfectly it is an attempt to reorient the reader from the counterculture, 1960s, Timothy Leary infused legacy of LSD and psilocybin to the scientific and social future of psychedelics It may not be of a comparable level to the cognitive expansion made possible by psychedelics, but this book certainly opened my mind to the potentials and pitfalls of this science undergoing its second go around As in The Omnivore s Dilemma, a favourite of mine from last year, Pollan acts a superb narrator and a stellar scientific journalist While reading or listening to some nonfiction and scientific journalism can feel like your most dry undergraduate course, Pollan always manages to write in a fashion that is compelling, thoughtful, and mindful of narrative Part of what makes this book work so well is that Pollan tackles his own hopes, misgivings, and flagrant disbelief in a way that endears the reader to his quest to understand psychedelics Additionally, I couldn t help but be excited to listen to Pollan talk about his own trips on several different psychedelics His attempt to lay structure upon ineffable experience is admirable, interesting, and emotionally honest.Of course, it helps Pollan that his subject matter is controversial and, at least to me, inherently interesting If you ve ever wondered about the limits of consciousness or been curious about the trips induced by psychedelics, then this book is definitely going to pique your interest I was taken in by Albert Hofmann s discovery of LSD and its brief journey through the halls of science before being derailed and made publicly available by figures such as Timothy Leary It was compelling to hear the accounts of researchers devastated by the public consumption of substances they were still trying to understand, and having that quest for understanding cut short by the government Following the account of several of Pollan s trips, the medical and neurological research ongoing into psychedelics makes for a smooth landing of a difficult to pilot vessel I was perhaps most taken by the psychedelic experiences of palliative cancer patients, who reported decreased or absent existential dread about their death after their guided experiences on psychedelics These and other avenues of psychedelic research are all guided by trained psychologists or physicians, which seems a far cry from the dreadlocked, Burning Man, tie dye psychedelic experience you might expect It is in these chapters that Pollan makes both his most compelling argument for continuing the study of psychedelics while distancing them from their tumultuous childhood Leaving the book, I m definitelycurious about psychedelics than I was beforehand Pollan lays out potentials and pitfalls of the future of psychedelics There will be a precarious balance between entrenched public perception held by many people most of my family and friends with whom I discussed the subject quoted myths and prejudices discussed by Pollan , the possible danger of these molecules, and their therapeutic potential I really enjoyed this book and was impressed throughout by Pollan s ability to remain objective even when dealing with the most zealous anecdotes This is a great one expand your mind with a listen A Brilliant And Brave Investigation By Michael Pollan, Author Of Five New York Times Best Sellers, Into The Medical And Scientific Revolution Taking Place Around Psychedelic Drugs And The Spellbinding Story Of His Own Life Changing Psychedelic Experiences When Michael Pollan Set Out To Research How LSD And Psilocybin The Active Ingredient In Magic Mushrooms Are Being Used To Provide Relief To People Suffering From Difficult To Treat Conditions Such As Depression, Addiction And Anxiety, He Did Not Intend To Write What Is Undoubtedly His Most Personal Book But Upon Discovering How These Remarkable Substances Are Improving The Lives Not Only Of The Mentally Ill But Also Of Healthy People Coming To Grips With The Challenges Of Everyday Life, He Decided To Explore The Landscape Of The Mind In The First Person As Well As The Third Thus Began A Singular Adventure Into The Experience Of Various Altered States Of Consciousness, Along With A Dive Deep Into Both The Latest Brain Science And The Thriving Underground Community Of Psychedelic Therapists Pollan Sifts The Historical Record To Separate The Truth About These Mysterious Drugs From The Myths That Have Surrounded Them Since The Sixties, When A Handful Of Psychedelic Evangelists Catalyzed A Powerful Backlash Against What Was Then A Promising Field Of ResearchA Unique And Elegant Blend Of Science, Memoir, Travel Writing, History, And Medicine, How To Change Your Mind Is A Triumph Of Participatory Journalism By Turns Dazzling And Edifying, It Is The Gripping Account Of A Journey To An Exciting And Unexpected New Frontier In Our Understanding Of The Mind, The Self, And Our Place In The World The True Subject Of Pollan S Mental Travelogue Is Not Just Psychedelic Drugs, But The Eternal Puzzle Of Human Consciousness And How, In A World That Offers Us Both Struggle And Beauty, We Can Do Our Best To Be Fully Present And Find Meaning In Our Lives Don t expect any nicety of style here, to use E.M Forster s phrase, though the book is well organized Nor does Pollan possess much wit, though I will not call him entirely humorless These propensities make the readingwork than it should be Moreover, he flattens and homogenizes his experiences with psychedelics so they re almost nothing He incapable of evoking moods The opportunity is given to him to tell us about his life in the context of these psychedelic experiences He remains guarded As a result, this book is a missed opportunity for both the author and the reader But we can thank him for one thing otherdaring authors shall surely follow in his path, just as he follows Huxley et al For that he deserves our gratitude.The book starts with background on the relatively recent resurrection of research into psychedelics after the 1960s federal suppression of it on grounds I m serious of national security Historically, psychedelics, which induce in the seeker an unequivocal belief that one has experienced nothing less than a view of the fundamental non dualist nature of the universe, created an unprecedented generation gap.Normally, rites of passage help societies knit together as the young cross over hurdles and through gates erected and maintained by their elders, coming out on the other side to take their place in the community of adults Not so with the psychedelic journey in the 1960s, which at its conclusion dropped its young travelers onto a psychic landscape unrecognizable to their parents p 216 It turns out that the early suppressed research, roughly a thousand clinical papers, showed how psychedelics might be used to treat addiction, PTSD, depression, anxiety and other maladies Most of this valid research, according to Pollan, though tainted at times by over enthusiasm on the part of investigators, proved beyond a reasonable doubt that psychedelics could be a viable pharmacological tool Yet out of fear and destestation of those experimenting with the drugs in those days, who were young and vehemently anti war, the findings were suppressed so that, yes, millions might suffer without the alleviation psychedelics would surely have provided them This suppression of science is a national disgrace and reason, as if we needed , to heap further opprobrium on past leaders.Pollan writes about this era of Cold War suppression, but focuses mainly on figures like Bob Jesse, Roland Griffiths and others who have been instrumental in spurring recent research into psychedelics In addition to a description of the history, present day research, and neurological functioning of psychedelics, are the author s own experiences with LSD 25, psilocybin, and 5 MeO DMT, or Sonoran Desert toad venom.In addition to the failure to use the form of memoir to explode the nonfiction constraints of this book, it becomes everamorphous as it winds along The late conclusion that children are basically tripping all the time strikes one as specious because it s so inadequately argued I know writing about the brain is no simple task But then I suppose Oliver Sacks s too genial model has spoiled me This book, while at times informative, doesn t come close to serving adequately its subject matter or its reader It is, however, a milestone in publishing terms it s been a great commercial success It s my hopeadroit writers will follow. I thought the writing was great but theI read, the less interested I became in this topic One description of someone s trip was fine, by the tenth description I was bored. I read the Pollan essay in the New Yorker about psychedelics and so I picked this up right away And I m convinced I totally want to try this Wish it wasn t illegal What was really brilliant about this book is his exploration of the ego and how that leads to so much stuckness and unhappiness The book is a sober, in depth account of a radical idea. I knew that in the 1960s some research had been performed that demonstrated the highly successful use of a psychedelic drug called Ibogaine to disrupt alcoholism and cocaine and nicotine addiction One of the most interesting facts that I learned from this book was how extensive the addiction research had also been using psilocybin and LSD And these psychological studies have actually been revived legally in university settings today How to Change Your Mind, was an interesting journey that explored numerous aspects of the use of psychedelics and the psychedelic experience, which appears to be enjoying a resurgence in social and psychiatric use Pollan reviews the history of psychedelic use in the history of the U.S with Timothy Leary looming large here but featuring other key figures as well He explores the results as well as the challenges of past and present scientific studies, the beliefs of psychedelic users, and the diverse variety of psychedelic experiences In this latter regard, while writing this book Pollan himself took a number of psychedelic drugs and related what occurred He also spends some time considering how plants with psychedelic effects may have evolved with such capabilities.He spends quite a great deal of time evaluating the idea that many psychonauts come away with but by no means all that they have experienced something mystical And by mystical, I mean something out there rather than only in here That somehow a psychedelic experience puts you in touch with something trans personal You touch God Timothy Leary was a big proponent of this philosophy, but while some theology students have taken psychedelics to achieve a personal meeting with God, for the most part, these psychedelic experiences seem to counteract any belief in religious Fundamentalism That is to say, the universal love and oneness that some individuals experience on psychedelics is a non denominational ego less state that doesn t welcome specific doctrine or dogma There is too much oneness of all things to make room for parochial belief in written books purporting to explain what God wants When you experience it first hand, you little need anyone else s explanation.I found he spent too many pages on this belief But I suppose it s out there and has been promoted by so many New Age crackpots, including Leary, that it was good for him to evaluate it Debunk it is the attitude that I would have, but Pollan is faropen minded than I am He cites the fact that so many psychonauts come away from their experiences absolutely 100% convinced that they encountered something greater than themselves, which makes it worth evaluating I think that point of view is noworth evaluating than it is to set two Fundamentalists against each other, a Christian Fundamentalist who believes Jesus was God and a Muslim who believes Allah was God and let them try to convince each other that because they are 100% convinced for sure absolutely that they are correct that well, they are correct Is it worth the debate It s not That said, he does point out some interesting reasons why it might be the case that psychonauts come away feeling that psychedelic experiences are different from dreams, relating to certain centers of the brain connected to critical thinking I have had several very bizarre, very intense psychedelic experiences in my life And I never considered them to be in any way mystical nor even what I might call spiritual They don t connect you to a magical realm out there like the fantasy realms of heaven or hell or Middle Earth or the 5th dimension in spacetime However, they can and I say can carefully because they certainly don t always unlock increased powers of imagination and creativity These bizarre experiences can shatter conventional thinking and allow you to achieve visions of not only artistic works but also new ways to live and be They can make you aware of how habit and convention and social constraints and cultural struggles have entombed our species into the diverse traps laid for us by wealth and privilege and power They encourage your mind to ask, What If and Why Not and How It s not hocus pocus religious magic and god it s a spark or catalyst for mental empowerment I am convinced it can produce powerful, personal insights that can be gleaned on one s own or in a therapeutic setting And also, because extremely powerful psychedelic journeys also initiate a dissolution of the ego, I have found that these trips can increase a feeling of empathy and sympathy for others, which can contribute to aenlightened political view as well as richer art Lastly, I do feel that these experiences have the capability when used in the proper context with a proper guide to improve psychological well being and break addictions The research isn t conclusive but generally does show much faster andeffective recovery Some studies have also shown that terminally ill patients come away from psychedelic experiences with much less anxiety and greater peace of mind about dying There is value to be tapped if use and study becomes further legalized Although there were many times while reading How to Change Your Mind where I was frustrated and thought Pollan was reporting some ridiculous mumbo jumbo, in the end, his evaluations were relatively reasonable And there was much of value and interest throughout the book. Self and Spirit define the opposite ends of a spectrum, but that spectrum needn t reach clear to the heavens to have meaning for us It can stay right here on earth When the ego dissolves, so does a bounded conception not only of ourself but of our self interest What emerges in its place is invariably a broader,open hearted and altruistic that is,spiritual idea of what matters in life One in which a new sense of connection, or love, however defined, seems to figure prominently How to Change Your Mind dovetails so nicely into my reading interests about the brain and consciousness and picks up some related threads that other recent reads wove for me in particular, What Are We Doing Here by Marilynne Robinson and Natural Causes by Barbara Ehrenreich , and continues a course of inquiry that I left dangling decades ago with reads like Zen, Drugs, and Mysticism by R.C Zaehner and The Teachings of Don Juan by Carlos Castaneda left dangling because, as someone raised on shocking Afterschool Specials, the flashback scene in Go Ask Alice, and the horror story of kindly Art Linkletter s tripped out daughter jumping off a building because she thought she could fly, I knew that I would never consume acid or shrooms or peyote as a shortcut to enlightenment institutionalised fear worked its trick on me How odd to have been sent this ARC of a book by Michael Pollan whose only previous work I had read was The Omnivore s Dilemma, back when I was interested in the philosophy of food just at the time that other books started talking about the resurgence of research into psychedelic therapy This book came at such a good time for me, and so perfectly suits my interests, that s there s some danger of me overrating it I m giving it five stars anyway Usual caveat As I read an ARC, quotes may not be in their final forms How to Change Your Mind is divided into sections covering the history of research into and the eventual banning of psychedelics and especially the invention of LSD and the introduction of psilocybin the active ingredient in magic mushrooms to the West, which both occurred in the mid twentieth century , Pollan s recent personal experiences with psychedelics, a brief section on neuroscience and how psychedelics impact the brain, and the uses to which these chemicals are being put to therapeutic study today As a journalist first, Pollan is present in each part of the book interviewing subjects and describing his own experiences and every bit of it was interesting to me.Pollan writes that nearly every culture on earth has used psychedelics the exception being the Inuit, who simply don t appear to have access to the right chemicals in their environment and with reference to the Stoned Ape theory that prehistoric experimentation with psychedelics might have shocked the brains of early hominids into becoming us although this theory isn t widely accepted, at any rate, these early visions of the divine might explain the persistence of religious belief throughout human civilisations , he makes the case that their use has been widespread throughout time and place There are, of course, nonchemical ways of achieving a psychedelic experience the characteristic dissolution of the ego can be attained through meditation or hypnagogic breathing techniques the nineteenth century Romantics Emerson, Whitman, Tennyson were so in awe of nature that they became one with it and wrote about it in language that prefigures the accounts of acid trips Appollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell describes his sudden mystical experience when viewing the Earth and its place in the universe from spaceSuddenly I realized that the molecules of my body, and the molecules of my spacecraft, the molecules in the bodies of my partners, were prototyped, manufactured in some ancient generation of stars I felt an overwhelming sense of oneness, of connectednessIt wasn t Them and Us, it was That s me that s all of it, it s one thing And it was accompanied by an ecstasy, a sense of, Oh my God, wow, yes an insight, an epiphany I can t help but think that if most of us can t achieve or won t put in the work to train ourselves to achieve spontaneous mystical experiences that have the potential to show us that all of humanity is connected and deserving of love, then what s the harm in guided recreational use of psychedelics On the other hand, you can kind of see why there was such a backlash against Timothy Leary in the Sixties if everyone does tune in, turn on, and drop out if everyone suddenly sees the pointlessness of their worker bee lives then who will keep the lights on and the grocery stores stocked and streets ploughed while the rest of us are seeking higher consciousness It feels ironic to read of Aldous Huxley s enthusiasm for widespread LSD use so many years after writing Brave New World, where he seemed to be advocating for theauthentic life lived by the savages in the wild who weren t blissed out on Soma One way or the other, psychedelics are making their return to respectabilitySo maybe this, then, is the enduring contribution of Leary by turning on a generation the generation that, years later, has now taken charge of our institutions he helped create the conditions in which a revival of psychedelic research is now possible Recreational or religious shamanic use of psychedelics has never gone away and Pollan was easily able to find trained and experienced guides to help him safely use LSD, psilocybin, and the toad I was impressed by the level of attention that all of these guides paid to preparation the set and setting that primes the mind , their care of Pollan during the experiences, and their training in helping him make sense of his trips after the fact I was also impressed by Pollan s efforts to describe the ineffable, as well as his apparent transparency in sharing what seems such private encounters with himself These guided trips seem to be like compressing years of therapy into a weekend it can be Freudian or Jungian, depending on how you prepare your mind beforehand , and that sounds valuable.Evenremarkably, there are reputable institutions currently conducting research into using psychedelics to combat depression, addiction, and obsessions what all of these seem to have in common are brains that are stuck in destructive modes of thinking that can literally be rebooted like shaking a snowglobe by a single acid trip Terminal cancer patients who are given psychedelic therapy discover their loving place in the universe and accept death as nonthreatening, smokers realise that their habit is pointless, people with depression so far, temporarily see the beauty in life even Bill W, the founder of AA who had quit drinking after tripping on belladonna, is said to have wanted psychedelic therapy available to alcoholics his philosophy of fellowship and surrendering to a higher power comes directly from what he experienced on his own psychedelic trip Love is everythingIs a platitude so deeply felt still a platitude No, I decided A platitude is precisely what is left of a truth after it has been drained of all emotion To re saturate that dried husk with feeling is to see it again for what it is the loveliest and most deepest of truths, hidden in plain sight A spiritual insight Maybe so Or at least that s how it appeared in the middle of my journey Psychedelics can make even the most cynical of us into fervent evangelists of the obvious.Pollan is careful not to conflate the metaphysical with God even avowed atheists who could only describe their experiences as having been bathed in God s love still assert that they don t believe in God after it s over but as the common experience seems to be seeing oneself as a part of all creation, and as this fosters a feeling of love for all humanity, it s hard to see what governments are afraid of by banning the recreational use of psychedelics except for that whole needing the worker bees to keep the lights on and the grocery stores stocked and the streets ploughed Full of history, science, and personal experience, How to Change Your Mind suited me and my interests perfectly. There is so much authority that comes out of the primary mystical experience that it can be threatening to existing hierarchical structuresRoland Griffiths, quoted in Michael Pollan, How to Change Your MindTo fall in hell or soar AngelicYou ll need a pinch of psychedelicHumphry OsmondI have family that struggle with addiction, depression, PTSD, and anxiety The idea that one group of compounds psychedelics could transform how we view and treat these various challenges to the human condition is VERY excititng Pollan s book does a great job of juggling the memoirist experience with psychedelics think of this partially as a 21st century version of Thomas De Quincey s Confessions of an English Opium Eater with a narrative nonfiction exploration of the history and current science surrounding primarily LSD, Psilocybin, and 5 MeO DMT the Toad Michael Pollan writes well he s not quite, for me, upto the level of John McPhee but he s close He both annoys and seduces at the same time He reminds me of a well produced TED Talk He is both interesting and compelling, but also a bit like a worn and comfortable shoe say a Birkenstock that represents a group I already feel comfortable both simultaneously walking with and yes kicking.Most of Pollan s book focuses on LSD and Psilocybin which makes sense because that is where most of the history and science are I was familiar with Leary, Ginsburg, Huxley, and even James takes on mind altering drugs and states, but it was nice to see it framed by Pollan I was also thrilled to be introduced to a bunch of characters I had never heard before I feel a movie could should be made about JUSt Al Hubbard.There is a huge part of me that finds the idea of psychedelic experience very compelling I ve got friends who are well respected doctors, writers, and attorneys who feel the same way However, my issue with most drugs especially pot , is most people take them to GET close to where I feel I am already I have a lot of awe, wonder, don t get depressed, feel no guilt, exist with very low anxiety, etc although I m absolute shit at meditation I think I do a pretty good job of hanging in the present while being able to look both forward and back when needed So, I m not sure I would be seeking LSD or Psilocybin or smoking the Toad for any reason except curiosity and gasp recreation That s the draw The reason I am skeptical still is I m not sure I trust most of the product clarification, after reading this I trust the productthan say the manufacturer, deliverer, source I m a bit suspect of taking candy OR street tacos from complete strangers so smoking a Toad that I didn t catch and milk myself doesn t exactly seem like something I m going to run off and do anytime soon But, if the practice comes above ground, standardizes, or I m dying all bets are off Bring me the TOAD. This is an epic book about the history of psychedelics, and their potential for improving the human condition My first thought on the subject was of people tripping on LSD, and making a mess of their lives But, this does not have to be the case at all Many mental illnesses could be cured with psychedelic assisted psychotherapy.The first half of the book is about the history of psychedelics Before 1965, Time Life Publications were enthusiastic boosters of psychedelics For example, in Life magazine in 1957 had an article by R Gordon Wasson, a banker, who may have been the first white person in recorded history to eat divine mushrooms Wasson hypothesized that some religions may have been inspired by a psychoactive mushroom The Spanish had tried to crush mushroom cults in South America because they saw them as a mortal threat to the authority of the church LSD was used in the 1950 s and early 1960 s to successfully treat thousands of alcoholics in Canada and the United States Therapeutic sessions with LSD had success rates of 70% for anxiety neurosis, 62% for depression, and 42% for OCD But sadly, this history has been all but erased Experiments showed that success depended on the setting and environment of the treatment Simply giving someone LSD in a sterile environment, without any discussion ahead of time or real time guidance, is a recipe for failure The downfall of LSD in the 1960 s was unintentionally assisted by Timothy Leary, a professor at Harvard He did experiments that had little scientific value He famously told a reporter,Psychedelic drugs cause panic and temporary insanity in people who have not taken them LSD became illegal in 1966 All research was shut down, except for the large program at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center at Spring Grove Research there continued to explore the potential of psychedelics to treat alcoholism, schizophrenia, and the distress of cancer patients.I thought the following anecdote was hilarious Andrew Weill was a young doctor working in the Haight Ashbury Free Clinic in 1968 He saw a lot of bad LSD trips and developed an effective treatment After examining a patient and determining that it was a panic reaction, he would tell the patient, Will you excuse me for a moment There s someone in the next room who has a serious problem This was an immediate cure So, the real question is why psychedelics can be helpful for such a wide range of mental illnesses Brain scans fMRI s have shown that the default mode network is turned off in people undergoing psychedelic sessions The default mode network is the portion of the brain that is active when not actively thinking about anything It acts as a filter on the fire hose of sensations that the body encounters, and also acts as a filter on the subconscious The hypothesis is that the ego temporarily loses its dominion, and the unconscious, now unregulated, comes to an observable space Brain scans show that psychedelics rewire the brain Whether this rewiring is temporary or permanent is not known It is interesting that the brains of experienced meditators look very similar to those on psilocybin Both dramatically reduce activity in the default mode network.The problem with performing scientific research, is that it is very difficult to perform double blind studies that have become the foundation of testing for pharmaceuticals The reason is that both the patient and the research can know almost instantly whether the medication is a psychedelic or a placebo In addition, it is difficult to isolate a single variable A psychedelic therapeutic session is not simply a matter of ingesting a chemical it is only successful with the proper guidance, and this can be a subjective matter.A single guided psilocybin session is sufficient to remove depression from 80% of cancer patients The fear of death is a function of our egos, and a psychedelic can suppress the ego The resulting journey yields a heightened sense of purpose and consequence The journey can shed light on how best to live the time left A study of smoking cessation found that most participants stopped smoking Those who had the most complete mystical experiences had the best outcomes But, pharmaceutical companies might not be interested in psychedelics The LSD patent expired long ago, and psilocybin occurs in nature And, if a single dose session is sufficient, there may be little profit.The author, Michael Pollan, has written another wonderful book My attitude toward psychedelics is completely turned around Hats off to a fascinating story